Redshift periodicity papers

Few years ago I compiled a list of papers relating to the quantized redshifts (or periodic redshifts, or preferred redshift peaks, or redshift bands, or…). I have previously posted it to a BAUT forum thread, but I decided to post it here as well. The list is not complete. It is probably quite thorough for older papers but there’s no papers that have been published after 2005. “Paper not available” in the list means that I couldn’t access the full text online (back then, I haven’t checked the situation currently). At some point, I might update this list to contain the newer papers as well. Note also that the subject is tied to a mainstream astronomy subject of large scale distribution of galaxies. There is a huge amount of papers on that subject, and only some of them are included to this list (those that seemed to concentreate on the periodicity issues), starting from Broadhurst et al. (1990). Here goes:

On the Wavelengths of the Absorption Lines in Quasi-Stellar Objects – Burbidge, Geoffrey (1967)

Limits to the Distance of the Quasi-Stellar Objects Deduced from Their Absorption Line Spectra – Burbidge, G. R.; Burbidge, E. M. (1967)

On the Nature of "standard" Absorption Spectrum of the Quasi-Stellar Objects – Shklovsky, J. (1967)

Concerning Redshifts in the Spectra of Quasi-Stellar Objects – Cowan, Clyde L. (1968)

The Distribution of Redshifts in Quasi-Stellar Objects, N-Systems and Some Radio and Compact Galaxies – Burbidge, Geoffrey (1968)

– Cowan, Clyde L. (1969) Nature, 224, 665

– Plagemann, S. H., Feldman, P. A. and Gribben, J. R. (1969) Nature, 224, 875

– Deeming, T. J. (1970) Nature, 225, 620

– Coles, W. A. (1970) unpublished

– Wesselink, A. J. (1970) Nature, 225, 927

QSO redshifts-Possible selection effect – Roeder, R. C. (1971) (paper not available)

Possible Discretization of Quasar Redshifts – Karlsson, K. G. (1971)

Some Trends in the Red-Shift Distribution of Quasi-Stellar Objects and Related Peculiar Galaxies – Basu, D.; Abdu, M. A. (1972)

An Analysis of the Distribution of Redshifts of Quasars and Emission-Line Objects – Lake, R. G.; Roeder, R. C. (1972)

Quasars-Effects of Earth’s atmosphere on redshift measurements – Roeder, R. C.; Dyer, C. C. (1972) (paper not available)

The Correlation of Redshift with Magnitude and Morphology in the Coma Cluster – Tifft, W. G. (1972)

The Distribution of Redshifts of Quasi-Stellar Objects and Related Emission-Line Objects – Burbidge, G. R.; O’dell, S. L. (1972)

Quasars-Selection effects and the nature of redshifts – Karlsson, K. G. (1973) (paper not available)

Properties of the redshift-magnitude bands in the Coma cluster – Tifft, W. G. (1973)

Redshift-Magnitude Bands, Quasi-Stellar Sources, and Systems of Redshift – Tifft, W. G. (1973)

QSOs-Selection in redshift measurement – Basu, D. (1973) (paper not available)

A Quantitative Alternative to the Cosmological Hypothesis for Quasars – Bell, Morley B.; Fort, David N. (1973)

The Distribution of Redshifts of Radio Galaxies with Different Optical Spectra and Forms – Burbidge, G. R.; O’dell, S. L. (1973)

Redshift Magnitude Bands for Quasistellar Sources – Veron, P.; Veron, M. P. (1974)

Remarks on the Magnitude-Redshift Bands in the Coma Cluster – Barnothy, Jeno M.; Barnothy, Madeleine F. (1974)

Fine Structure Within the Redshift-Magnitude Correlation for Galaxies – Tifft, W. G. (1974)

The definition, visibility, and significance of redshift-magnitude bands – Tifft, W. G. (1974)

Distribution of quasars in the universe – Schmidt, M. (1974) (paper not available)

On the Significance of Periodicities in the Observed Quasar Redshifts and in the Intrinsic Redshift Components as Computed from Bell and Fort’s Quasar Model – Corso, G. J.; Barnothy, J. M. (1975)

Possible effect of misidentification of QSOs on the redshift distribution – Basu, D. (1975) (paper not available)

The NGC 507 cluster of galaxies – Tifft, W. G.; Hilsman, K. A.; Corrado, L. C. (1975)

The distribution of redshifts of quasars and related objects – Knight, J. W.; Sturrock, P. A.; Switzer, P. (1976)

Critique of Bell and Fort’s quasar model – Barnothy, J. M.; Corso, G. J. (1976)

Discrete states of redshift and galaxy dynamics. I – Internal motions in single galaxies – Tifft, W. G. (1976)

On the redshift distribution of quasi-stellar objects – Wills, D.; Ricklefs, R. L. (1976)

The ln(l+z) Periodicity in the Redshifts of Quasars – Barnothy, M. F.; Barnothy, J. M. (1976)

Periodicity in the ln/1+z/ distribution of quasars – Barnothy, J. M.; Barnothy, M. F. (1976)

On the reality of periodicities in the redshift distribution of emission-line objects – Green, R. F.; Richstone, D. O. (1976)

Redshift-magnitude bands in clusters of galaxies – Tifft, W. G. (1977) (paper not available)

Discrete states of redshift and galaxy dynamics. II – Systems of galaxies – Tifft, W. G. (1977)

Discrete states of redshift and Galaxy dynamics. III – Abnormal galaxies and stars – Tifft, W. G. (1977)

Distortion of Galaxy Radial Velocity Measurements by the Night Sky Spectrum – Simkin, S. M. (1977)

On the existence of significant peaks in the quasar redshift distribution – Karlsson, K. G. (1977)

Gaps in the emission line redshift distribution of QSOs – Basu, D. (1977)

On the In (I + z) Periodicity in QSO Redshifts – Wills, D. (1977)

A trend in the gaps in redshift distribution of QSOs – Basu, D. (1978)

On the periodicity in the distribution of quasar redshifts – Kjaergaard, P. (1978) (paper not available)

The Simkin effect – Tifft, W. G. (1978)

The discrete redshift and asymmetry in H I profiles – Tifft, W. G. (1978)

The absolute solar motion and the discrete redshift – Tifft, W. G. (1978)

Redshift-magnitude bands and the evolution of galaxies. I – New observations – Tifft, W. G. (1978)

Redshift-magnitude bands and the evolution of galaxies. II – Data analysis – Tifft, W. G. (1978)

Band theory applied to the Coma/A1367 supercluster – Tifft, W. G.; Gregory, S. A. (1979)

Structure within redshift-magnitude bands – Morphological evolution – Tifft, W. G. (1979)

Periodicity in the redshift intervals for double galaxies – Tifft, W. G. (1980)

Absorption line redshift distribution of QSOs – Basu, D. (1980)

An analysis of the redshift-magnitude band phenomenon in the Coma Cluster – Nanni, D.; Pittella, G.; Trevese, D.; Vignato, A. (1981)

The periodicity in the distribution of quasar redshifts and the density perturbations in the early universe – Fang, L.-Z.; Chu, Y.-Q.; Liu, Y.; Cao, C. (1982)

Quantum effects in the redshift intervals for double galaxies – Tifft, W. G. (1982)

Double galaxy investigations. II – The redshift periodicity in optically observed pairs – Tifft, W. G. (1982)

The cosmic density wave and its observable vestige – Liu, Y.-Z. (1982)

Effect of search lines on emission and absorption redshift distribution of QSOs – Basu, D. (1983)

Distribution of gaps in emission line redshifts of QSOs – Basu, D. (1983)

Redshift quantization in compact groups of galaxies – Cocke, W. J.; Tifft, W. G. (1983)

The effects of emission line identification on the redshift distribution of QSO’s – Zhou, Y.-Y.; Deng, Z.-G.; Zhou, Z.-L. (1983)

The distribution of quasar emission-line redshifts – Box, T. C.; Roeder, R. C. (1984)

The distribution of absorption line redshifts of quasars and its origin – Chu, Y.; Fang, L.; Liu, Y. (1984) (paper not available)

Status of Quantized Extragalactic Redshifts – Tifft, W. G.; Cocke, W. J. (1984)

Double galaxy redshifts and dynamical analyses – Sharp, N. A. (1984)

Global redshift quantization – Tifft, W. G.; Cocke, W. J. (1984)

Double galaxy investigations. III – The differential redshift distribution and emission-line correlations – Tifft, W. G. (1985)

Theory and interpretation of quantized extragalactic redshifts – Cocke, W. J. (1985)

The redshift distribution law of quasars revisited – Depaquit, S.; Pecker, J.-C.; Vigier, J.-P. (1985)

Emission line redshift distribution of QSOs – Zhou, Y.-Y.; Deng, Z.-G.; Dai, H.-J. (1985)

The distribution of emission line redshift of QSOs – Basu, D. (1985)

Relativistic realization of a proposed model of quantized redshift – Nieto, M. M. (1986) (paper not available)

Results from high precision 21-cm redshift measurements – Cocke, W. J.; Tifft, William G. (1987) (paper not available)

Quantized galaxy redshifts – Tifft, William G.; Cocke, W. John (1987) (paper not available)

Additional members of the Local Group of galaxies and quantized redshifts within the two nearest groups – Arp, Halton (1987)

Quantized Redshifts are Real – Tifft, W. G. (1987) (paper not available)

A different approach to the cosmological quantized redshift problem – Buitrago, J. (1988) (paper not available)

Quantization of redshift differences in isolated galaxy pairs – Tifft, W. G.; Cocke, W. J. (1989)

The periodicity in the redshift distribution of the Lyman-alpha forest – Chu, Yaoquan; Zhu, Xingfen (1989)

Double galaxy redshifts and the statistics of small numbers – Newman, William I.; Haynes, Martha P.; Terzian, Yervant (1989)

Redshift quantization in the Ly-alpha forest and the measurement of q(0) – Cocke, W. J.; Tifft, W. G. (1989)

Periodicities in galaxy redshifts – Croasdale, Martin R. (1989)

Periodicity of quasar redshifts – Arp, H.; Bi, H. G.; Chu, Y.; Zhu, X. (1990)

Deviation from periodicity in the large-scale distribution of galaxies – Kurki-Suonio, H.; Mathews, G. J.; Fuller, G. M. (1990)

Large-scale distribution of galaxies at the Galactic poles – Broadhurst, T. J.; Ellis, R. S.; Koo, D. C.; Szalay, A. S. (1990) (paper not available)

The Virgo cluster as a test for quantization of extragalactic redshifts – Guthrie, B. N. G.; Napier, W. M. (1990)

Double galaxy redshifts and dynamical analyses. II – Sample comparisons – Sharp, N. A. (1990)

A large-scale periodic clustering of galaxies as a result of hydromagnetic ringing of gas in a recombination ERA of the expanding universe – Fujimoto, Mitsuaki (1990)

The redshift peak at Z = 0.06 – Burbidge, G.; Hewitt, A. (1990)

Periodicity of redshift distribution in a T-3 universe – Fang, Li-Zhi (1990)

Oscillating universe – The periodic redshift distribution of galaxies with a scale 128/h megaparsecs at the galactic poles – Morikawa, Masahiro (1990)

Quasar redshifts and nearby galaxies – Karlsson, K. G. (1990)

Can oscillating physics explain an apparently periodic universe? – Hill, Christopher T.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S. (1990) (paper not available)

Claims for periodicity in quasar redshifts – Scott, Douglas (1991)

Statistical procedure and the significance of periodicities in double-galaxy redshifts – Cocke, W. J.; Tifft, W. G. (1991)

Coherent peculiar velocities and periodic redshifts – Hill, Christopher T.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S. (1991)

Universe with oscillating expansion rate – Morikawa, Masahiro (1991)

Quasi-periodicity in deep redshift surveys – van de Weygaert, Rien (1991)

Against the Delta-ln(1 + z) of about 0.205 periodicity in quasar redshifts – Scott, D. (1991)

Large-scale structure in the Lyman-alpha forest – Fang, L. Z. (1991)

Periodic universe and condensate of pseudo-Goldstone field – Anselm, A. A. (1991)

Quasi-periodic structures in the large-scale galaxy distribution and three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation – Ikeuchi, Satoru; Turner, Edwin L. (1991)

Evidence for redshift periodicity in nearby field galaxies – Guthrie, B. N. G.; Napier, W. M. (1991)

Power-spectrum analysis of one-dimensional redshift surveys – Kaiser, N.; Peacock, J. A. (1991)

Superclusters and pencil-beam surveys – The origin of large-scale periodicity – Bahcall, Neta A. (1991)

Large-scale periodicity – Problems with cellular models – Williams, B. G.; Heavens, A. F.; Peacock, J. A. (1991)

Properties of the redshift. III – Temporal variation – Tifft, W. G. (1991)

Velocity differences in binary galaxies. I – Suggestions for a nonmonotonic, two-component distribution – Schneider, Stephen E.; Salpeter, Edwin E. (1992)

Statistical tests of peaks and periodicities in the observed redshift distribution of quasi-stellar objects – Duari, Debiprosad; Gupta, Patrick D.; Narlikar, Jayant V. (1992)

Possible geometric patterns in 0.1c scale structure – Tully, R. B.; Scaramella, Roberto; Vettolani, Giampaolo; Zamorani, Giovanni (1992)

Statistical methods for investigating periodicities in double-galaxy redshifts – Cocke, W. J. (1992)

Statistical properties of the sky distribution of extragalactic infrared sources – Source-number fluctuations and density peaks – Fabbri, R. (1992)

The distribution of rich clusters of galaxies in the south Galactic pole region – Guzzo, Luigi; Collins, Chris A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Lumsden, Stuart L. (1992)

Large-scale periodicity and Gaussian fluctuations – Dekel, Avishai; Blumenthal, George R.; Primack, Joel R.; Stanhill, David (1992)

The peaks and gaps in the redshift distributions of active galactic nuclei and quasars – Kruogovenko, Andrei A.; Orlov, Viktor V. (1992)

A new method for the detection of a periodic signal of unknown shape and period – Gregory, P. C.; Loredo, Thomas J. (1992)

Cosmological parameters and redshift periodicity – Holba, Agnes; Horvath, I.; Lukacs, B.; Paal, G. (1992)

Redshift quantization in the cosmic background rest frame – Tifft, W. G.; Cocke, W. J. (1993)

The clustering of QSOs at low redshift – Boyle, B. J.; Mo, H. J. (1993)

Upper limit on periodicity in the three-dimensional large-scale distribution of matter – Tytler, David; Sandoval, John; Fan, Xiao-Ming (1993)

High-resolution simulation of deep pencil beam surveys – analysis of quasi-periodicity – Weiss, A. G.; Buchert, T. (1993)

Can Extra Power Explain Periodicity on Large Scales? – Luo, Shan; Vishniac, Ethan T. (1993)

Quasi-periodical structures in the galaxy populations – Mass and luminosity functions for the cluster galaxies – Litvin, V. F.; Holzmann, F. M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Taibin, B. S.; Orlov, V. V.; Baryshnikov, V. N. (1993)

Apparently periodic Universe – Busarello, G.; Capozziello, S.; de Ritis, R.; Longo, G.; Rifatto, A.; Rubano, C.; Scudellaro, P. (1994)

Redshift data and statistical inference – Newman, William I.; Haynes, Martha P.; Terzian, Yervant (1994)

Once more on quasar periodicities – Holba, Agnes; Horvath, I.; Lukacs, B.; Paal, G. (1994) (paper not available)

Redshift Quantization – A Review – Tifft, W. G. (1995) (paper not available)

The Spontaneous Violation of the Cosmological Principle and the Possible Wave Structures of the Universe – Budinich, P.; Nurowski, P.; Raczka, R.; Ramella, M. (1995)

Global Redshift Periodicities: Association with the Cosmic Background Radiation – Cocke, W. J.; Tifft, W. G. (1996) (paper not available)

Evidence for quantized and variable redshifts in the cosmic backgroung rest frame – Tifft, W. G. (1996) (paper not available)

Statiscal analysis of the occurrence of periodicities in galaxy redshift data – Cocke, W.; Devito, C.; Pitucco, A. (1996) (paper not available)

Redshift periodicity in the Local Supercluster – Guthrie, B. N. G.; Napier, W. M. (1996)

Testing for quantized redshifts. I. The project – Napier, W. M.; Guthrie, B. N. G. (1996) (paper not available)

Testing for quantized redshifts. II. The Local Supercluster – Napier, W. M.; Guthrie, B. N. G. (1996) (paper not available)

The 37.5 km s-1 redshift periodicity of galaxies as the machion frequency – Arp, Halton (1996)

Galactic periodicity and the oscillating G model – Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Quevedo, Hernando (1996)

Global Redshift Periodicities and Periodicity Structure – Tifft, W. G. (1996)

The Periodic Distribution of Redshifts – Carvalho, J. C. (1997) (paper not available)

Global Redshift Periodicities and Periodicity Variability – Tifft, W. G. (1997)

The redshift periodicity of galaxies as a probe of the correctness of general relativity – Valerio Faraoni (1997)

A 120 MPC Periodicity in the Three-Dimensional Distribution of Galaxy Superclusters – Einasto, J.; Einasto, M.; Gottloeber, S.; Mueller, V.; Saar, V.; Starobinsky, A. A.; Tago, E.; Tucker, D.; Andernach, H.; Frisch, P. (1997)

A study of the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the South Galactic Pole region – II. Further evidence for a preferential clustering scale? – Ettori, S.; Guzzo, L.; Tarenghi, M. (1997)

Redshift Quantization in the Cosmic Background Rest Frame – Tifft, W. G. (1997)

The Possible Redshift Clumping of Damped Lyman-alpha Absorbers – Gal, R.; Djorgovski, S. G. (1997)

Quantized Redshifts: A Status Report – Napier, W. M.; Guthrie, B. N. G. (1997)

The supercluster-void network – II. an oscillating cluster correlation function – Einasto, J.; Einasto, M.; Frisch, P.; Gottlober, S.; Muller, V.; Saar, V.; Starobinsky, A. A.; Tago, E.; Tucker, D.; Andernach, H. (1997)

Periodicity in the Redshift Distribution of Quasi Stellar Objects – Duari, Debiprosad (1997)

Periodicity revealed by statistics of the absorption-line redshifts of quasars – Liu, Yong-Zhen; Hu, Fu-Xing (1998)

The spatial and temporal distribution of matter in the redshift interval z = 1.2-3.2 – Ryabinkov, A. I.; Varshalovich, D. A.; Kaminker, A. D. (1998) (paper not available)

Periodicity in quasar redshifts or selection effects? – Basu, D. (1999) (paper not available)

Clustering Properties of Low-Redshift QSO Absorption Systems Toward the Galactic Poles – vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Lauroesch, James T.; Stoughton, Chris; Szalay, Alexander S.; Koo, David C.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Blades, J. Chris; Melott, Adrian L.; Boyle, Brian J.; Broadhurst, Thomas J.; York, Donald G. (1999)

Galaxy Clustering and Large-Scale Structure from z=0.2 to z=0.5 in Two Norris Redshift Surveys – Small, Todd A.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Hamilton, Donald (1999)

Space-time distributions of QSO absorption systems – Kaminker, A. D.; Ryabinkov, A. I.; Varshalovich, D. A. (2000)

Spatial structure and periodicity in the Universe – González, J. A.; Quevedo, H.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D. (2000)

The Distribution of Redshifts in New Samples of Quasi-stellar Objects – Burbidge, G.; Napier, W. M. (2001)

Periodicity versus selection effects in the redshift distribution of QSOs – Basu, D. (2001) (paper not available)

Electrostatic interaction energy and factor 1.23 – Rubcic, A.; Arp, H.; Rubcic, J. (2002)

No Periodicities in 2dF Redshift Survey Data – E. Hawkins, S.J. Maddox, M.R. Merrifield (2002)

Quantum Perturbative Approach to Discrete Redshift – Mark D. Roberts (2002)

The supercluster-void network V.. The regularity periodogram – Saar, E.; Einasto, J.; Toomet, O.; Starobinsky, A. A.; Andernach, H.; Einasto, M.; Kasak, E.; Tago, E. (2002) (paper not available)

Redshift periodicities, The Galaxy-Quasar Connection – Tifft, W. G. (2003) (paper not available)

The Sources of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Their Connections with QSOs and Active Galaxies – Burbidge, G. R. (2003) (paper not available)

Is the Redshift Clustering of Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts Significant?
– J. S. Bloom (2003)

The detection of periodicity in QSO data sets – Napier, W. M.; Burbidge, G. (2003) (paper not available)

Discrete Components in the Radial Velocities of ScI Galaxies – M.B. Bell, S.P. Comeau, D.G. Russell (2004)

Large Scale Periodicity in Redshift Distribution – K. Bajan, M. Biernacka, P. Flin, W. Godlowski, V. Pervushin, A. Zorin (2004)

Distances of Quasars and Quasar-Like Galaxies: Further Evidence that QSOs may be Ejected from Active Galaxies – M. B. Bell (2004)

Selection Effects in the Redshift Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Associated Quasi-stellar Objects and Active Galaxies – Basu, D. (2005) (paper not available)

Periodicities of Quasar Redshifts in Large Area Surveys – H. Arp, C. Fulton, D. Roscoe (2005)

Evidence for Cosmological Oscillations in the Gold SnIa Dataset – R. Lazkoz, S. Nesseris, L. Perivolaropoulos (2005)

Critical Examinations of QSO Redshift Periodicities and Associations with Galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data – Su Min Tang, Shuang Nan Zhang (2005)

3C 303 – a nearby QSO with possible radio bridge

Kronberg (1976) studied the radio structure of 3C 303 field. Kronberg noted:

Also visible is a low brightness extension of the western component toward the southwest. This extension is approximately superposed on a ~19.5 mag object at ([alpha] = 14h41m22s68, [sigma] = 52[degrees]14’18″0) which is clearly visible in Figure 1 and which we shall call object C.

At that time, object C (object 2 in figure 1) wasn’t yet identified, but there were some spectral knowledge from Burbidge indicating it was not a star or a normal radio galaxy nucleus. Kronberg also showed that there were two other objects very close to object C and that all three objects showed ultraviolet excess. Object that Kronberg called G was best positioned with the end of the radio extension (or rather the second component of the double radio source). Kronberg et al. (1977) published further radio observations and spectra observations. They said on the radio extension:

The existence of the faint features between the two main radio components strongly suggests that the latter are physically connected and are not just a chance superposition of unrelated radio systems (Kronberg 1976).

Kronberg et al. (1977) measured the spectrum of the object C. It turned out to be a quasar with redshift of z = 1.57. They then discussed the possible explanations of the system, one question being if the object C was in the background. They calculated the probability for the chance projection of object C to be about 0.001. Their analysis showed that there were no satisfactory explanation with the information available at that point.

Lonsdale et al. (1983) produced new radio maps of the field. The maps didn’t show much association between the radio sources and the quasar, but they showed that Kronberg’s object G was likely to be associated with the other radio component (commonly referred to as a radio hotspot). Arp (1987) mentioned this system as an example of a possible bridge between lower and higher redshift objects.

Meisenheimer et al. (1997) studied the system in infrared. They detected the bridge between the two radio sources. They weren’t able to determine if the object G was the one associated with the radio hotspot but it seemed very probable as the object G showed the similar structure as the radio hotspot. They concluded that the radio hotspot candidate was not actual radio hotspot, but just a bright knot in the jet of 3C 303. Lähteenmäki & Valtaoja (1999) made some observations that showed that the object G is indeed the optical object that corresponds to the radio hotspot. They didn’t find any connection with the quasar (object C).

Kataoka et al. (2003) studied the system in X-rays. They first showed a radio image of the system where the quasar seems to lie within the general radio feature of the system. Their X-ray image shows the quasar to be “in touch” with the radio hotspot (which in turn is clearly bridged to 3C 303 in radio image) but it is impossible to say that the apparent connection would be anything else than an overlapping effect.


Objects 4 (cz = 26791 km/s) and 9 (cz = 26806 km/s) have lower redshift than 3C 303. They also have similar redshift to each other, and there’s one more object (SDSS J144314.14+515610.0, cz = 26823 km/s) little outside the pictured field in figure 1 that has similar redshift. They form a probable galaxy group with mean redshift of cz = 26807 km/s. Group’s redshift dispersion is very small, maximum dispersion is only 16 km/s. Object 9 has almost exactly the mean redshift and is brightest of the three, so it would be natural main galaxy candidate for the group. On the other hand, object 4 has largest major diameter (0.33 against 0.25 and 0.12 of objects 9 and the one outside the field respectively). If object 4 would be the main galaxy, the other group members would have slightly higher redshift than the redshift of the main galaxy.

There are three objects that have similar redshift as 3C 303 (cz = 42327 km/s): object 3 (cz = 42049 km/s), object 5 (cz = 42931 km/s), and object 7 (cz = 42574 km/s). They form a probable galaxy group with mean redshift of cz = 42470 km/s. Group’s redshift dispersion is 461 km/s at maximum. There are two good main galaxy candidates; 3C 303 is brightest and object 7 has largest major diameter. Both of these objects are closest to the mean redshift of the group (object 7 being the closest to the mean). Object 3 is smallest and faintest but has lowest redshift.

There is a line of four objects; object 6 (z = 0.43), 3C 303 (z = 0.14), object 3 (z = 0.14), and object 5 (z = 0.14). Line is very straight and one of the objects has discordant redshift (object 6). There is a similar situation with objects 9 (z = 0.09), 4 (z = 0.09), and 8 (z = 0.16), but there object 8 is slightly off the line.

Figure 1. The field around 3C 303. Size of the image is 10 x 10 arcmin. Image is from Digitized Sky Survey (POSS2/UKSTU Blue) and it has been adjusted for brightness and contrast to bring out faint objects.

Objects and their data

1 3C 303 N galaxy, BLRG 0.141186 17.6 (G) 0
2 3C 303C QSO 1.570000 19.97 0.275
3 SDSS J144301.15+520153.9 galaxy 0.140261 19.6 (G) 0.373
4 SDSS J144317.79+520209.5 galaxy 0.089365 17.6 (G) 2.374
5 SDSS J144251.74+520321.6 galaxy 0.143201 17.9 (G) 2.429
6 SDSS J144313.85+515946.6 galaxy 0.433745 21.2 (G) 2.512
7 SDSS J144313.09+520356.4 galaxy 0.142013 17.9 (G) 2.811
8 SDSS J144307.10+520440.0 galaxy 0.157260 18.6 (G) 3.119
9 SDSS J144326.46+515953.4 galaxy 0.089415 17.3 (G) 4.038

NED objects within 10′ from 3C 303 with redshifts available.

SDSS image of 3C 303 system.


Arp, 1987, IAUS, 124, 479, “Observations requiring a non-standard approach”

Kataoka et al., 2003, A&A, 399, 91, “Chandra detection of hotspot and knots of 3C 303”

Kronberg, 1976, ApJ, 203, 47, “3C 303: a source with unusual radio and optical properties”

Kronberg et al., 1977, ApJ, 218, 8, “The radio structure and optical field of 3C 303”

Lonsdale et al., 1983, MNRAS, 202, 1, “The radio structure of 3C303 at 408 MHz”

Lähteenmäki & Valtaoja, 1999, AJ, 117, 1168, “Optical Polarization and Imaging of Hot Spots in Radio Galaxies”

Meisenheimer et al., 1997, A&A, 325, 57, “The synchrotron spectra of radio hot spots. II. Infrared imaging”

53W 003 – lot of high-z objects

Pascarelle et al. (1998) reported about a population of objects at z ~ 2.4 in the field containing 53W 003. They suggested that there’s a large scale structure at that redshift. This was followed up by many studies, such as Keel et al. (1999), who show individual images of the objects and a nice map of the field. They also reported a finding of two quasars in the field (objects 6 and 11 in Figure 1 here) having similar redshift as the large scale structure.

Arp (1999) discussed this system as discordant redshift system. Arp noted that the two quasars found by Keel et al. were aligned across 53W 003 and separated from the other group of similar redshift objects. Arp discussed some properties of 53W 003 and noted:

The first important point for this paper, however, is that such galaxies are rare, and finding one this close to a very unusual grouping of high redshift objects is clearly noteworthy.

Arp showed that there were only three medium redshift quasars in the Her I and Her II fields and two of them fell close to 53W 003 (but outside the field presented in figure 1). Third fell close to another similar galaxy as 53W 003. Arp also noted that there seemed to be more quasars near 53W 003 than average density would suggest. The shape of the high redshift objects near 53W 003 also caught Arp’s eye:

All our empirical experience would indicate that the most luminous galaxies are massive, relaxed, equilibrium forms. But in the 53W003 field, as in the typical Hubble Deep Field, there is a preponderance of blue, irregular-shaped objects, which I would argue is prima facie evidence for low-luminosity, intrinsically redshifted young matter in various stages of compactness.


There are lot of faint objects in the field with redshifts available from The Bright Ages Survey. They are difficult to locate exactly from the DSS image presented here, so most of them have been left out from Figure 1 but at least a few closest to 53W 003 are indicated (objects 3, 4, and 5). Interested readers can check them from NED list of objects within 10′ from 53W 003 with redshifts available.

Object 8 is not the big elliptical object, but it is some very faint object in its vicinity.

Figure 1. The field around 53W 003. Size of the image is 10 x 10 arcmin. Image is from Digitized Sky Survey (POSS2/UKSTU Blue), and it has been adjusted for brightness and contrast to bring out the faint objects.

Objects and their data

1 53W 003 galaxy pair 0.050000 (14990 km/s) 0
2 2MASX J17141672+5018167 galaxy 0.045300 (13581 km/s) 13.8 (K) 0.065
3 BAS 1714+5015 M133 IrS 0.045700 (13701 km/s) 17.1 (K) 0.242
4 BAS 1714+5015 M052 galaxy 1.088000 19.2 (K) 0.363
5 BAS 1714+5015 M057 galaxy 0.046000 (13790 km/s) 20.0 (K) 0.494
6 [KCW99] 04 QSO BLAGN 2.393000 24.37 0.706
7 [WBM91] 2 galaxy 2.388000 22.50 2.801
8 [PWK98] 008 galaxy 2.386000 25.6 2.803
9 53W 002d galaxy sp+comp 0.275000 19.63 3.830
10 53W 002c galaxy sp+bar 0.273000 19.81 3.887
11 [KCW99] 02 QSO 2.381000 23.31 4.499
12 53W 002e galaxy sp+comp 0.528000 20.53 4.606

NED objects within 10′ from 53W 003 with redshifts available.


Arp, 1999, ApJ, 525, 594, “The Distribution of High-Redshift (z>~2) Quasars near Active Galaxies”

Keel et al., 1999, AJ, 118, 2547, “Evidence for Large-Scale Structure at z ~ 2.4 from Lya Imaging”

Pascarelle et al., 1998, AJ, 116, 2659, “Compact Lyalpha-emitting Candidates at Z ~= 2.4 in Deep Medium-Band Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Images”

UGC 05020 – High-z companion, QSO, pair, line

Arp (1980) discussed the companion galaxies of NGC 2859. One of the four discussed companions is UGC 05020 (object 1 in Figure 1). Specifically, Arp studied quasars near companion galaxies. He noted that UGC 05020 had an ultraviolet excess object in its vicinity. Arp studied it spectroscopically, and it turned out to be a quasar (object 2). Arp calculated the probability of 0.01 for a background quasar falling so close to UGC 05020 by chance.

Arp also noted the presence of the apparent companion galaxy (object 3). He said:

…, it is noticeable that a second galaxy, nearly as bright, lies close by to the southwest. The comparable brightness, the closeness, and above all the signs of interaction naturally led to the assumption that these two galaxies were at the same distance. It was a considerable surprise therefore when the spectrum of this second component clearly exhibited a much larger redshift of z = 7442 km s-1.

Arp then mentioned that the redshift difference of UGC 05020 and object 3 is similar to the redshift differences found in Stephan’s quintet. He studied the spectrum of object 3 and noted that some spectral features didn’t fit to a large background galaxy and that some features were similar to typical small companion galaxies. Arp concluded:

We see that there are several kinds of evidence which indicate that the z = 7,442 km s-1 galaxy is also physically associated with an NGC 2859 companion and therefore at the same distance.

New evidence

Objects 6 and 7 are roughly aligned across UGC 05020. The alignment is quite closely along the minor axis of UGC 05020. Objects 6 and 7 have almost the same redshift, but not quite close enough to be clearly a galaxy pair (the radial velocity difference is about 2700 km/s). Their distance from UGC 05020 is similar, so is their appearance, and their G band magnitude is the same.

Objects 2 and 10 form a line that is very accurately aligned with the nucleus of UGC 05020. They are both quasars with redshifts over 2. Lower redshift quasar is closer to UGC 05020, though, which would go against decreasing redshift hypothesis. Object 5 also falls close to the line, and it also is a quasar but with lower redshift. It is interesting to note that within 9 arcminutes from UGC 05020 we have three objects that are labelled as QSO’s in NED and all those three are quite accurately in same direction from UGC 05020. There’s a fourth quasar (SDSS J092548.59+344809.1, z = 0.5405) slightly outside of the field shown in Figure 1. It is not exactly in the same direction, but quite close (it is roughly in the same direction as object 6). On the other side, object 4 also falls to the line, but is not similar to other objects.

In summary, we have here:

– a quasar that is very close to the main galaxy.
– a higher redshift companion galaxy, and the situation is very similar to that of NGC 1232 and NGC 1232A.
– a pair of very similar higher redshift objects aligned along the minor axis of the main galaxy.
– a line of quasars from the main galaxy containing all the nearby quasars.


There’s no sign of a bridge between UGC 05020 and object 3 or object 2 in DSS os SDSS images.

Figure 1. Objects with available redshift near UGC 05020 (all objects within 9 arcmin are presented). The arrow at lower right points to the approximate direction of NGC 2859. Size of the image is 15 x 15 arcmin. Image is from Digitized Sky Survey (POSS2/UKSTU Blue) and it has been adjusted for brightness and contrast to bring out fainter objects more clearly.

Objects and their data

1 UGC 05020 Scd 0.005420 (1625 km/s) 14.9 (g) 0
2 NGC 2859 U2 QSO 2.250000 19.2 (g) 1.008
3 MCG +06-21-036 Sc 0.024177 (7248 km/s) 15.8 (g) 1.607
4 SDSS J092616.68+343708.6 galaxy 0.150899 18.8 (g) 3.744
5 SDSS J092542.32+344108.6 QSO 1.066320 16.5 (g) 4.390
6 SDSS J092549.67+344439.7 galaxy 0.080995 (24282 km/s) 17.7 (g) 5.972
7 SDSS J092606.74+343240.7 galaxy 0.071833 (21535 km/s) 17.7 (g) 6.616
8 SDSS J092527.26+343917.7 galaxy 0.235684 18.8 (g) 7.039
9 SDSS J092533.04+343441.0 galaxy 0.017219 (5162 km/s) 17.0 (g) 7.398
10 SDSS J092527.51+344357.7 QSO 2.784200 20.4 (g) 8.449

NED objects within 10′ from NGC 0010.

SDSS image of the system.


Arp, 1980, ApJ, 240, 415, “High-redshift objects near the companion galaxies to NGC 2859”